8.1.9. Broken Bonds¶
Typically, bond interactions persist for the duration of a simulation in LAMMPS. However, there are some exceptions that allow for bonds to break including the quartic bond style and the bond styles in the BPM package which contains the bpm/spring and bpm/rotational bond styles. In these cases, a bond can be broken if it is stretched beyond a user-defined threshold. LAMMPS accomplishes this by setting the bond type to zero such that the bond force is no longer computed.
Users are normally able to weight the contribution of pair forces to atoms that are bonded using the special_bonds command. When bonds break, this is not always the case. For the quartic bond style, pair forces are always turned off between bonded particles. LAMMPS does this via a computational sleight-of-hand. It subtracts the pairwise interaction as part of the bond computation. When the bond breaks, the subtraction stops. For this to work, the pairwise interaction must always be computed by the pair_style command, whether the bond is broken or not. This means that special_bonds must be set to 1,1,1. After the bond breaks, the pairwise interaction between the two atoms is turned on, since they are no longer bonded.
In the BPM package, one can either turn off all pair interactions between bonded particles or leave them on, overlaying pair forces on top of bond forces. To remove pair forces, the special bond list is dynamically updated. More details can be found on the Howto BPM page.
Bonds can also be broken by fixes which change bond topology, including fix bond/break and fix bond/react. These fixes will automatically trigger a rebuild of the neighbor list and update special bond data structures when bonds are broken.
Note that when bonds are dumped to a file via the dump local command, bonds with type 0 are not included. The delete_bonds command can also be used to query the status of broken bonds or permanently delete them, e.g.:
delete_bonds all stats delete_bonds all bond 0 remove
The compute nbond/atom can also be used to tally the current number of bonds per atom, excluding broken bonds.