8.5.2. Granular models

Granular system are composed of spherical particles with a diameter, as opposed to point particles. This means they have an angular velocity and torque can be imparted to them to cause them to rotate.

To run a simulation of a granular model, you will want to use the following commands:

This compute

calculates rotational kinetic energy which can be output with thermodynamic info. The compute

calculates various versions of the fabric tensor for granular and non-granular pair styles.

Use one of these 4 pair potentials, which compute forces and torques between interacting pairs of particles:

These commands implement fix options specific to granular systems:

The fix style freeze zeroes both the force and torque of frozen atoms, and should be used for granular system instead of the fix style setforce.

To model heat conduction, one must add the temperature and heatflow atom variables with: * fix property/atom a temperature integration fix * fix heat/flow and a heat conduction option defined in both * pair_style granular * fix wall/gran

For computational efficiency, you can eliminate needless pairwise computations between frozen atoms by using this command:


By default, for 2d systems, granular particles are still modeled as 3d spheres, not 2d discs (circles), meaning their moment of inertia will be the same as in 3d. If you wish to model granular particles in 2d as 2d discs, see the note on this topic on the Howto 2d doc page, where 2d simulations are discussed.

To add custom granular contact models, see the modifying granular sub-models page.