fix wall/gran command

Accelerator Variants: wall/gran/kk


fix ID group-ID wall/gran fstyle fstyle_params wallstyle args keyword values ...
  • ID, group-ID are documented in fix command

  • wall/gran = style name of this fix command

  • fstyle = style of force interactions between particles and wall

    possible choices: hooke, hooke/history, hertz/history, granular
  • fstyle_params = parameters associated with force interaction style

    For hooke, hooke/history, and hertz/history, fstyle_params are:
          Kn = elastic constant for normal particle repulsion (force/distance units or pressure units - see discussion below)
          Kt = elastic constant for tangential contact (force/distance units or pressure units - see discussion below)
          gamma_n = damping coefficient for collisions in normal direction (1/time units or 1/time-distance units - see discussion below)
          gamma_t = damping coefficient for collisions in tangential direction (1/time units or 1/time-distance units - see discussion below)
          xmu = static yield criterion (unitless value between 0.0 and 1.0e4)
          dampflag = 0 or 1 if tangential damping force is excluded or included
          optional keyword = limit_damping, limit damping to prevent attractive interaction
    For granular, fstyle_params are set using the same syntax as for the pair_coeff command of pair_style granular
  • wallstyle = xplane or yplane or zplane or zcylinder

  • args = list of arguments for a particular style

    xplane or yplane or zplane args = lo hi
      lo,hi = position of lower and upper plane (distance units), either can be NULL)
    zcylinder args = radius
      radius = cylinder radius (distance units)
  • zero or more keyword/value pairs may be appended to args

  • keyword = wiggle or shear or contacts or temperature

     wiggle values = dim amplitude period
       dim = x or y or z
       amplitude = size of oscillation (distance units)
       period = time of oscillation (time units)
     shear values = dim vshear
       dim = x or y or z
       vshear = magnitude of shear velocity (velocity units)
    contacts value = none
       generate contact information for each particle
    temperature value = temperature
       specify temperature of wall


fix 1 all wall/gran hooke  200000.0 NULL 50.0 NULL 0.5 0 xplane -10.0 10.0
fix 1 all wall/gran hooke/history 200000.0 NULL 50.0 NULL 0.5 0 zplane 0.0 NULL
fix 2 all wall/gran hooke 100000.0 20000.0 50.0 30.0 0.5 1 zcylinder 15.0 wiggle z 3.0 2.0
fix 3 all wall/gran granular hooke 1000.0 50.0 tangential linear_nohistory 1.0 0.4 damping velocity region myBox
fix 4 all wall/gran granular jkr 1e5 1500.0 0.3 10.0 tangential mindlin NULL 1.0 0.5 rolling sds 500.0 200.0 0.5 twisting marshall region myCone
fix 5 all wall/gran granular dmt 1e5 0.2 0.3 10.0 tangential mindlin NULL 1.0 0.5 rolling sds 500.0 200.0 0.5 twisting marshall damping tsuji heat 10 region myCone temperature 1.0
fix 6 all wall/gran hooke  200000.0 NULL 50.0 NULL 0.5 0 xplane -10.0 10.0 contacts


Bound the simulation domain of a granular system with a frictional wall. All particles in the group interact with the wall when they are close enough to touch it.

The nature of the wall/particle interactions are determined by the fstyle setting. It can be any of the styles defined by the pair_style gran/* or the more general pair_style granular commands. Currently the options are hooke, hooke/history, or hertz/history for the former, and granular with all the possible options of the associated pair_coeff command for the latter. The equation for the force between the wall and particles touching it is the same as the corresponding equation on the pair_style gran/* and pair_style granular doc pages, in the limit of one of the two particles going to infinite radius and mass (flat wall). Specifically, delta = radius - r = overlap of particle with wall, m_eff = mass of particle, and the effective radius of contact = RiRj/Ri+Rj is set to the radius of the particle.

The parameters Kn, Kt, gamma_n, gamma_t, xmu, dampflag, and the optional keyword limit_damping have the same meaning and units as those specified with the pair_style gran/* commands. This means a NULL can be used for either Kt or gamma_t as described on that page. If a NULL is used for Kt, then a default value is used where Kt = 2/7 Kn. If a NULL is used for gamma_t, then a default value is used where gamma_t = 1/2 gamma_n.

All the model choices for cohesion, tangential friction, rolling friction and twisting friction supported by the pair_style granular through its pair_coeff command are also supported for walls. These are discussed in greater detail on the doc page for pair_style granular.

Note that you can choose a different force styles and/or different values for the wall/particle coefficients than for particle/particle interactions. E.g. if you wish to model the wall as a different material.


As discussed on the page for pair_style gran/*, versions of LAMMPS before 9Jan09 used a different equation for Hertzian interactions. This means Hertizian wall/particle interactions have also changed. They now include a sqrt(radius) term which was not present before. Also the previous versions used Kn and Kt from the pairwise interaction and hardwired dampflag to 1, rather than letting them be specified directly. This means you can set the values of the wall/particle coefficients appropriately in the current code to reproduce the results of a previous Hertzian monodisperse calculation. For example, for the common case of a monodisperse system with particles of diameter 1, Kn, Kt, gamma_n, and gamma_s should be set sqrt(2.0) larger than they were previously.

The effective mass m_eff in the formulas listed on the pair_style granular page is the mass of the particle for particle/wall interactions (mass of wall is infinite). If the particle is part of a rigid body, its mass is replaced by the mass of the rigid body in those formulas. This is determined by searching for a fix rigid command (or its variants).

The wallstyle can be planar or cylindrical. The 3 planar options specify a pair of walls in a dimension. Wall positions are given by lo and hi. Either of the values can be specified as NULL if a single wall is desired. For a zcylinder wallstyle, the cylinder’s axis is at x = y = 0.0, and the radius of the cylinder is specified.

Optionally, the wall can be moving, if the wiggle or shear keywords are appended. Both keywords cannot be used together.

For the wiggle keyword, the wall oscillates sinusoidally, similar to the oscillations of particles which can be specified by the fix move command. This is useful in packing simulations of granular particles. The arguments to the wiggle keyword specify a dimension for the motion, as well as it’s amplitude and period. Note that if the dimension is in the plane of the wall, this is effectively a shearing motion. If the dimension is perpendicular to the wall, it is more of a shaking motion. A zcylinder wall can only be wiggled in the z dimension.

Each timestep, the position of a wiggled wall in the appropriate dim is set according to this equation:

position = coord + A - A cos (omega * delta)

where coord is the specified initial position of the wall, A is the amplitude, omega is 2 PI / period, and delta is the time elapsed since the fix was specified. The velocity of the wall is set to the derivative of this expression.

For the shear keyword, the wall moves continuously in the specified dimension with velocity vshear. The dimension must be tangential to walls with a planar wallstyle, e.g. in the y or z directions for an xplane wall. For zcylinder walls, a dimension of z means the cylinder is moving in the z-direction along it’s axis. A dimension of x or y means the cylinder is spinning around the z-axis, either in the clockwise direction for vshear > 0 or counter-clockwise for vshear < 0. In this case, vshear is the tangential velocity of the wall at whatever radius has been defined.

The temperature keyword is used to assign a temperature to the wall. The following value can either be a numeric value or an equal-style variable. If the value is a variable, it should be specified as v_name, where name is the variable name. In this case, the variable will be evaluated each timestep, and its value used to determine the temperature. This option must be used in conjunction with a heat conduction model defined in pair_style granular, fix property/atom to store temperature and a heat flow, and fix heat/flow to integrate heat flow.

Styles with a gpu, intel, kk, omp, or opt suffix are functionally the same as the corresponding style without the suffix. They have been optimized to run faster, depending on your available hardware, as discussed on the Accelerator packages page. The accelerated styles take the same arguments and should produce the same results, except for round-off and precision issues.

These accelerated styles are part of the GPU, INTEL, KOKKOS, OPENMP, and OPT packages, respectively. They are only enabled if LAMMPS was built with those packages. See the Build package page for more info.

You can specify the accelerated styles explicitly in your input script by including their suffix, or you can use the -suffix command-line switch when you invoke LAMMPS, or you can use the suffix command in your input script.

See the Accelerator packages page for more instructions on how to use the accelerated styles effectively.

Restart, fix_modify, output, run start/stop, minimize info

This fix writes the shear friction state of atoms interacting with the wall to binary restart files, so that a simulation can continue correctly if granular potentials with shear “history” effects are being used. See the read_restart command for info on how to re-specify a fix in an input script that reads a restart file, so that the operation of the fix continues in an uninterrupted fashion.

If the contacts option is used, this fix generates a per-atom array with 8 columns as output, containing the contact information for owned particles (nlocal on each processor). All columns in this per-atom array will be zero if no contact has occurred. The values of these columns are listed in the following table:





1.0 if particle is in contact with wall, 0.0 otherwise


Force \(f_x\) exerted by the wall

force units


Force \(f_y\) exerted by the wall

force units


Force \(f_z\) exerted by the wall

force units


\(x\)-coordinate of contact point on wall

distance units


\(y\)-coordinate of contact point on wall

distance units


\(z\)-coordinate of contact point on wall

distance units


Radius \(r\) of atom

distance units

None of the fix_modify options are relevant to this fix. No parameter of this fix can be used with the start/stop keywords of the run command. This fix is not invoked during energy minimization.


This fix is part of the GRANULAR package. It is only enabled if LAMMPS was built with that package. See the Build package page for more info.

Any dimension (xyz) that has a granular wall must be non-periodic.