\(\renewcommand{\AA}{\text{Å}}\)

# compute entropy/atom command¶

## Syntax¶

```
compute ID group-ID entropy/atom sigma cutoff keyword value ...
```

ID, group-ID are documented in compute command

entropy/atom = style name of this compute command

sigma = width of Gaussians used in the \(g(r)\) smoothing

cutoff = cutoff for the \(g(r)\) calculation

one or more keyword/value pairs may be appended

keyword =avgorlocalavgargs = neigh cutoff2 neigh value =yesorno= whether to average the pair entropy over neighbors cutoff2 = cutoff for the averaging over neighborslocalarg =yesorno= use the local density around each atom to normalize the g(r)

## Examples¶

```
compute 1 all entropy/atom 0.25 5.
compute 1 all entropy/atom 0.25 5. avg yes 5.
compute 1 all entropy/atom 0.125 7.3 avg yes 5.1 local yes
```

## Description¶

Define a computation that calculates the pair entropy fingerprint for each atom in the group. The fingerprint is useful to distinguish between ordered and disordered environments, for instance liquid and solid-like environments, or glassy and crystalline-like environments. Some applications could be the identification of grain boundaries, a melt-solid interface, or a solid cluster emerging from the melt. The advantage of this parameter over others is that no a priori information about the solid structure is required.

This parameter for atom i is computed using the following formula from (Piaggi) and (Nettleton) ,

where \(r\) is a distance, \(g(r)\) is the radial distribution function of atom \(i\), and \(\rho\) is the density of the system. The \(g(r)\) computed for each atom \(i\) can be noisy and therefore it is smoothed using

where the sum over \(j\) goes through the neighbors of atom \(i\) and \(\sigma\) is a parameter to control the smoothing.

The input parameters are *sigma* the smoothing parameter \(\sigma\),
and the *cutoff* for the calculation of \(g(r)\).

If the keyword *avg* has the setting *yes*, then this compute also
averages the parameter over the neighbors of atom \(i\) according to

where the sum over \(j\) goes over the neighbors of atom \(i\) and
\(N\) is the number of neighbors. This procedure provides a sharper
distinction between order and disorder environments. In this case the input
parameter *cutoff2* is the cutoff for the averaging over the neighbors and
must also be specified.

If the *avg yes* option is used, the effective cutoff of the neighbor
list should be *cutoff*+*cutoff2* and therefore it might be necessary
to increase the skin of the neighbor list with:

```
neighbor <skin distance> bin
```

See neighbor for details.

If the *local yes* option is used, the \(g(r)\) is normalized by the
local density around each atom, that is to say the density around each
atom is the number of neighbors within the neighbor list cutoff divided
by the corresponding volume. This option can be useful when dealing with
inhomogeneous systems such as those that have surfaces.

Here are typical input parameters for fcc aluminum (lattice constant \(4.05~\AA\)),

```
compute 1 all entropy/atom 0.25 5.7 avg yes 3.7
```

and for bcc sodium (lattice constant \(4.23~\AA\)),

```
compute 1 all entropy/atom 0.25 7.3 avg yes 5.1
```

## Output info¶

By default, this compute calculates the pair entropy value for each atom as a per-atom vector, which can be accessed by any command that uses per-atom values from a compute as input. See the Howto output page for an overview of LAMMPS output options.

The pair entropy values have units of the Boltzmann constant. They are always negative, and lower values (lower entropy) correspond to more ordered environments.

## Restrictions¶

This compute is part of the EXTRA-COMPUTE package. It is only enabled if LAMMPS was built with that package. See the Build package page for more info.

## Default¶

The default values for the optional keywords are avg = no and local = no.

**(Piaggi)** Piaggi and Parrinello, J Chem Phys, 147, 114112 (2017).

**(Nettleton)** Nettleton and Green, J Chem Phys, 29, 6 (1958).