\(\renewcommand{\AA}{\text{Å}}\)

# compute orientorder/atom command

Accelerator Variants: *orientorder/atom/kk*

## Syntax

```
compute ID group-ID orientorder/atom keyword values ...
```

ID, group-ID are documented in compute command

orientorder/atom = style name of this compute command

one or more keyword/value pairs may be appended

keyword =

*cutoff*or*nnn*or*degrees*or*wl*or*wl/hat*or*components*or*chunksize**cutoff*value = distance cutoff*nnn*value = number of nearest neighbors*degrees*values = nlvalues, l1, l2,...*wl*value =*yes*or*no**wl/hat*value =*yes*or*no**components*value = ldegree*chunksize*value = number of atoms in each pass

## Examples

```
compute 1 all orientorder/atom
compute 1 all orientorder/atom degrees 5 4 6 8 10 12 nnn NULL cutoff 1.5
compute 1 all orientorder/atom wl/hat yes
compute 1 all orientorder/atom components 6
```

## Description

Define a computation that calculates a set of bond-orientational order parameters \(Q_\ell\) for each atom in a group. These order parameters were introduced by Steinhardt et al. as a way to characterize the local orientational order in atomic structures. For each atom, \(Q_\ell\) is a real number defined as follows:

The first equation defines the local order parameters as averages
of the spherical harmonics \(Y_{\ell m}\) for each neighbor.
These are complex number components of the 3D analog of the 2D order
parameter \(q_n\), which is implemented as LAMMPS compute
hexorder/atom.
The summation is over the *nnn* nearest
neighbors of the central atom. The angles \(\theta\) and \(\phi\) are
the standard spherical polar angles
defining the direction of the bond vector \(r_{ij}\).
The phase and sign of \(Y_{\ell m}\) follow the standard conventions,
so that \(\mathrm{sign}(Y_{\ell\ell}(0,0)) = (-1)^\ell\).
The second equation defines \(Q_\ell\), which is a
rotationally invariant non-negative amplitude obtained by summing
over all the components of degree \(\ell\).

The optional keyword *cutoff* defines the distance cutoff
used when searching for neighbors. The default value, also
the maximum allowable value, is the cutoff specified
by the pair style.

The optional keyword *nnn* defines the number of nearest
neighbors used to calculate \(Q_\ell\). The default value is 12.
If the value is NULL, then all neighbors up to the
specified distance cutoff are used.

The optional keyword *degrees* defines the list of order parameters to
be computed. The first argument *nlvalues* is the number of order
parameters. This is followed by that number of non-negative integers giving the
degree of each order parameter. Because \(Q_2\) and all odd-degree order
parameters are zero for atoms in cubic crystals (see
Steinhardt), the default order parameters are \(Q_4\),
\(Q_6\), \(Q_8\), \(Q_{10}\), and \(Q_{12}\). For the FCC
crystal with *nnn* =12,

The numerical values of all order parameters up to \(Q_{12}\) for a range of commonly encountered high-symmetry structures are given in Table I of Mickel et al., and these can be reproduced with this compute.

The optional keyword *wl* will output the third-order invariants \(W_\ell\)
(see Eq. 1.4 in Steinhardt) for the same degrees as
for the \(Q_\ell\) parameters. For the FCC crystal with *nnn* = 12,

The optional keyword *wl/hat* will output the normalized third-order
invariants \(\hat{W}_\ell\) (see Eq. 2.2 in Steinhardt)
for the same degrees as for the \(Q_\ell\) parameters. For the FCC crystal
with *nnn* =12,

The numerical values of \(\hat{W}_\ell\) for a range of commonly encountered high-symmetry structures are given in Table I of Steinhardt, and these can be reproduced with this keyword.

The optional keyword *components* will output the components of the
*normalized* complex vector
\(\hat{Y}_{\ell m} = \bar{Y}_{\ell m}/|\bar{Y}_{\ell m}|\)
of degree *ldegree*, which must be included in the list of order parameters to
be computed. This option can be used in conjunction with
compute coord_atom to calculate the ten Wolde’s
criterion to identify crystal-like particles, as discussed in
ten Wolde.

The optional keyword *chunksize* is only applicable when using the
the KOKKOS package and is ignored otherwise. This keyword controls
the number of atoms in each pass used to compute the bond-orientational
order parameters and is used to avoid running out of memory. For example
if there are 32768 atoms in the simulation and the *chunksize*
is set to 16384, the parameter calculation will be broken up
into two passes.

The value of \(Q_\ell\) is set to zero for atoms not in the
specified compute group, as well as for atoms that have less than
*nnn* neighbors within the distance cutoff, unless *nnn* is NULL.

The neighbor list needed to compute this quantity is constructed each time the calculation is performed (i.e., each time a snapshot of atoms is dumped). Thus it can be inefficient to compute/dump this quantity too frequently.

Note

If you have a bonded system, then the settings of special_bonds command can remove pairwise interactions between atoms in the same bond, angle, or dihedral. This is the default setting for the special_bonds command, and means those pairwise interactions do not appear in the neighbor list. Because this fix uses the neighbor list, it also means those pairs will not be included in the order parameter. This difficulty can be circumvented by writing a dump file, and using the rerun command to compute the order parameter for snapshots in the dump file. The rerun script can use a special_bonds command that includes all pairs in the neighbor list.

Styles with a *gpu*, *intel*, *kk*, *omp*, or *opt* suffix are
functionally the same as the corresponding style without the suffix.
They have been optimized to run faster, depending on your available
hardware, as discussed on the Accelerator packages
page. The accelerated styles take the same arguments and should
produce the same results, except for round-off and precision issues.

These accelerated styles are part of the GPU, INTEL, KOKKOS, OPENMP, and OPT packages, respectively. They are only enabled if LAMMPS was built with those packages. See the Build package page for more info.

You can specify the accelerated styles explicitly in your input script by including their suffix, or you can use the -suffix command-line switch when you invoke LAMMPS, or you can use the suffix command in your input script.

See the Accelerator packages page for more instructions on how to use the accelerated styles effectively.

## Output info

This compute calculates a per-atom array with *nlvalues* columns,
giving the \(Q_\ell\) values for each atom, which are real numbers in the
range \(0 \le Q_\ell \le 1\).

If the keyword *wl* is set to yes, then the \(W_\ell\) values for each
atom will be added to the output array, which are real numbers.

If the keyword *wl/hat* is set to yes, then the \(\hat{W}_\ell\)
values for each atom will be added to the output array, which are real numbers.

If the keyword *components* is set, then the real and imaginary parts
of each component of *normalized* \(\hat{Y}_{\ell m}\) will be added to the
output array in the following order:
\(\Re(\hat{Y}_{-m}),\) \(\Im(\hat{Y}_{-m}),\)
\(\Re(\hat{Y}_{-m+1}),\) \(\Im(\hat{Y}_{-m+1}), \dotsc,\)
\(\Re(\hat{Y}_m),\) \(\Im(\hat{Y}_m).\)

In summary, the per-atom array will contain *nlvalues* columns, followed by
an additional *nlvalues* columns if *wl* is set to yes, followed by
an additional *nlvalues* columns if *wl/hat* is set to yes, followed
by an additional 2*(2* *ldegree*+1) columns if the *components*
keyword is set.

These values can be accessed by any command that uses per-atom values from a compute as input. See the Howto output doc page for an overview of LAMMPS output options.

## Restrictions

none

## Default

The option defaults are *cutoff* = pair style cutoff, *nnn* = 12,
*degrees* = 5 4 6 8 10 12 (i.e., \(Q_4\), \(Q_6\), \(Q_8\), \(Q_{10}\), and \(Q_{12}\)),
*wl* = no, *wl/hat* = no, *components* off, and *chunksize* = 16384

**(Steinhardt)** P. Steinhardt, D. Nelson, and M. Ronchetti,
Phys. Rev. B 28, 784 (1983).

**(Mickel)** W. Mickel, S. C. Kapfer, G. E. Schroeder-Turkand, K. Mecke,
J. Chem. Phys. 138, 044501 (2013).

**(tenWolde)** P. R. ten Wolde, M. J. Ruiz-Montero, D. Frenkel,
J. Chem. Phys. 104, 9932 (1996).