\(\renewcommand{\AA}{\text{Å}}\)

# compute saed command¶

## Syntax¶

```
compute ID group-ID saed lambda type1 type2 ... typeN keyword value ...
```

ID, group-ID are documented in compute command

saed = style name of this compute command

lambda = wavelength of incident radiation (length units)

type1 type2 … typeN = chemical symbol of each atom type (see valid options below)

zero or more keyword/value pairs may be appended

keyword =

*Kmax*or*Zone*or*dR_Ewald*or*c*or*manual*or*echo**Kmax*value = Maximum distance explored from reciprocal space origin (inverse length units)*Zone*values = z1 z2 z3 z1,z2,z3 = Zone axis of incident radiation. If z1=z2=z3=0 all reciprocal space will be meshed up to*Kmax**dR_Ewald*value = Thickness of Ewald sphere slice intercepting reciprocal space (inverse length units)*c*values = c1 c2 c3 c1,c2,c3 = parameters to adjust the spacing of the reciprocal lattice nodes in the h, k, and l directions respectively*manual*= flag to use manual spacing of reciprocal lattice points based on the values of the*c*parameters*echo*= flag to provide extra output for debugging purposes

## Examples¶

```
compute 1 all saed 0.0251 Al O Kmax 1.70 Zone 0 0 1 dR_Ewald 0.01 c 0.5 0.5 0.5
compute 2 all saed 0.0251 Ni Kmax 1.70 Zone 0 0 0 c 0.05 0.05 0.05 manual echo
fix 1 all saed/vtk 1 1 1 c_1 file Al2O3_001.saed
fix 2 all saed/vtk 1 1 1 c_2 file Ni_000.saed
```

## Description¶

Define a computation that calculates electron diffraction intensity as described in (Coleman) on a mesh of reciprocal lattice nodes defined by the entire simulation domain (or manually) using simulated radiation of wavelength lambda.

The electron diffraction intensity I at each reciprocal lattice point is computed from the structure factor F using the equations:

Here, K is the location of the reciprocal lattice node, \(r_j\) is the position of each atom, \(f_j\) are atomic scattering factors.

Diffraction intensities are calculated on a three-dimensional mesh of reciprocal lattice nodes. The mesh spacing is defined either (a) by the entire simulation domain or (b) manually using selected values as shown in the 2D diagram below.

For a mesh defined by the simulation domain, a rectilinear grid is
constructed with spacing *c**inv(A) along each reciprocal lattice
axis. Where A are the vectors corresponding to the edges of the
simulation cell. If one or two directions has non-periodic boundary
conditions, then the spacing in these directions is defined from the
average of the (inversed) box lengths with periodic boundary conditions.
Meshes defined by the simulation domain must contain at least one periodic
boundary.

If the *manual* flag is included, the mesh of reciprocal lattice nodes
will defined using the *c* values for the spacing along each reciprocal
lattice axis. Note that manual mapping of the reciprocal space mesh is
good for comparing diffraction results from multiple simulations; however
it can reduce the likelihood that Bragg reflections will be satisfied
unless small spacing parameters (\(<0.05~\AA^-1\))
are implemented. Meshes with manual spacing do not require a periodic
boundary.

The limits of the reciprocal lattice mesh are determined by the use of
the *Kmax*, *Zone*, and *dR_Ewald* parameters. The rectilinear mesh
created about the origin of reciprocal space is terminated at the
boundary of a sphere of radius *Kmax* centered at the origin. If
*Zone* parameters *z1* = *z2* = *z3* = 0 are used, diffraction intensities are
computed throughout the entire spherical volume - note this can
greatly increase the cost of computation. Otherwise, *Zone*
parameters will denote the \(z1=h\), \(z2=k\), and \(z3=\ell\)
(in a global sense) zone axis of an intersecting Ewald sphere. Diffraction
intensities will only be computed at the intersection of the reciprocal lattice
mesh and a *dR_Ewald* thick surface of the Ewald sphere. See the
example 3D intensity data and the intersection of a [010] zone axis
in the below image.

The atomic scattering factors, fj, accounts for the reduction in diffraction intensity due to Compton scattering. Compute saed uses analytical approximations of the atomic scattering factors that vary for each atom type (type1 type2 … typeN) and angle of diffraction. The analytic approximation is computed using the formula (Brown):

Coefficients parameterized by (Fox) are assigned for each atom type designating the chemical symbol and charge of each atom type. Valid chemical symbols for compute saed are:

H |
He |
Li |
Be |
B |
C |
N |
O |
F |
Ne |
Na |
Mg |
Al |
Si |
P |
S |
Cl |
Ar |
K |
Ca |

Sc |
Ti |
V |
Cr |
Mn |
Fe |
Co |
Ni |
Cu |
Zn |
Ga |
Ge |
As |
Se |
Br |
Kr |
Rb |
Sr |
Y |
Zr |

Nb |
Mo |
Tc |
Ru |
Rh |
Pd |
Ag |
Cd |
In |
Sn |
Sb |
Te |
I |
Xe |
Cs |
Ba |
La |
Ce |
Pr |
Nd |

Pm |
Sm |
Eu |
Gd |
Tb |
Dy |
Ho |
Er |
Tm |
Yb |
Lu |
Hf |
Ta |
W |
Re |
Os |
Ir |
Pt |
Au |
Hg |

Tl |
Pb |
Bi |
Po |
At |
Rn |
Fr |
Ra |
Ac |
Th |
Pa |
U |
Np |
Pu |
Am |
Cm |
Bk |
Cf |

If the *echo* keyword is specified, compute saed will provide extra
reporting information to the screen.

## Output info¶

This compute calculates a global vector. The length of the vector is the number of reciprocal lattice nodes that are explored by the mesh. The entries of the global vector are the computed diffraction intensities as described above.

The vector can be accessed by any command that uses global values from a compute as input. See the Howto output doc page for an overview of LAMMPS output options.

All array values calculated by this compute are “intensive”.

## Restrictions¶

This compute is part of the DIFFRACTION package. It is only enabled if LAMMPS was built with that package. See the Build package page for more info.

The compute_saed command does not work for triclinic cells.

## Default¶

The option defaults are Kmax = 1.70, Zone 1 0 0, c 1 1 1, dR_Ewald = 0.01.

**(Coleman)** Coleman, Spearot, Capolungo, MSMSE, 21, 055020
(2013).

**(Brown)** Brown et al. International Tables for Crystallography
Volume C: Mathematical and Chemical Tables, 554-95 (2004).

**(Fox)** Fox, O’Keefe, Tabbernor, Acta Crystallogr. A, 45, 786-93
(1989).